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The Criminal Code Of The Russian Federation

Adopted by the State Duma on May 24, 1996
Adopted by the Federation Council on June 5, 1996
Federal Law No. 64-FZ of June 13, 1996 on the Enforcement of the Criminal
Code of the Russian Federation

Part II
Section VIII
Chapter 21
Crimes Against Property
Chapter 22
Crimes in the Sphere of Economic Activity
Chapter 23
Crimes Against the Interests of Service in Profit-making and OtherOrganizations

Chapter 22. Crimes in the Sphere of Economic Activity

Article 169. Obstruction of Lawful Business Activity


1. Illegitimate refusal to register an individual businessman or a profit-making organization or delay of their registration, wrongful refusal to issue a special permit (license) for a specified activity or delay of its issue, restriction of the rights and legally-protected interests of an individual businessman or a profit-making organization based on its organizational structure, legal status, or form of property, and also restriction of independence or any other illegal interference in the activity of an individual businessman or a profit-making organization, if these deeds have been committed by an official through his official position,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 200 to 500 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of two to five months, or by disqualification to hold specified offices or to engage in specified activities for a term of up to three years, with a fine in the amount of 50 minimum wages or salaries or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of up to one month, or by compulsory works for a term of 120 to 180 hours.
2. The same acts, committed in contravention of a judicial decision that has come into legal force, and also causing large-scale damage,
shall be punishable by disqualification to hold specified offices or to engage in specified activities for a term of up to five years, with a fine in the amount of up to 100 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of up to one month, or by compulsory works for a term of 180 to 240 hours, or by arrest for a term of four to six months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to two years.

Article 170. Registration of Illegal Land Deals


Knowing registration of unlawful land deals, distortion of record data in the State Land Cadastre, and also the wilful understatement of land payments, if these acts have been committed out of mercenary or any other personal interest by an office-bearer through his official position,
shall be punishable by fine in the amount of 100 to 200 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of one to two months, or by disqualification to hold specified offices or to engage in specified activities for a term of up to three years, or by compulsory works for a term of 120 to 180 hours.

Article 171. Illegal Enterprise


1. Operating an illegal enterprise without registration or a special permit (license), in cases where such permit (license) is obligatory, or with the breach of licensing terms, if this deed has caused large damage to individuals, organizations, or the State, or is attended by profit-making on a large scale,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 300 to 500 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of three to five months, or by compulsory works for a term of 180 to 240 hours, or by arrest for a term of four to six months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to three years.
2. The same deed:
    a) committed by an organized group;
    b) attended by profit-making on a especially large scale;
    c) committed by a person earlier tried for operating an illegal enterprise or engaging in illegal banking activity,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 700 to 1,000 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of seven to twelve months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of five years, with a fine in the amount of 50 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of one month, or without any fine.
Note: Articles 171 and 172 of this Code classify as large-scale income any income, the amount of which exceeds 200 minimum wages, and as especially large income any income, the amount of which exceeds 500 minimum wages.

Article 171.1. Production, purchase, storage, transportation or sale of unmarked goods and products


1. Large scale production, purchase, storage, transportation with the aim of sale of unmarked goods and product subject to mandatory marking by excise tax marks, by special marks, or marks of conformance, forgery-proof, if perpetrated on a large
scale,shall be punishable by fine in the amount from 200 up to 500 minimum wages or salaries, or in the amount of salary or any other income of the convicted person earned over the period from two to five months or by the deprivation of liberty for a term of up to three years.
2. The same deeds, if committed
    a) by an organized group;
    b) repeatedly;
    c) on a specially large scale, -
shall be punishable by the deprivation of liberty from two up to six years either with the confiscation of property of without the latter.
Note. This Article deems a large scale to be the value of unmarked goods and products exceeding in two hundred times the minimum wage or salary established by legislation of the Russian Federation at the time crime is committed, while a specially large scale is five hundred-fold.

Article 172. Illegal Banking Activity


1. Engaging in banking activity (banking operations) without registration or without a special permit (license), in cases where such permit (license) is obligatory, or with the breach of licensing terms, if this deed has caused large-scale damage to individuals, organizations, or the State, or is attended by profit-making on a large scale,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 500 to 800 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of five to eight months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to four years, with a fine in the amount of 50 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of up to one month, or without any fine.
2. The same deed:
    a) committed by an organized group;
    b) attended by profit-making in an especially large amount;
    c) committed by a person who earlier was convicted of engaging in illegal banking activity or operating an illegal enterprise,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of three to seven years, with the confiscation of property or without such confiscation.

Article 173. False Enterprise


False enterprise, that is, the creation of a profit-making organization without the intent to carry out its entrepreneurial or banking activity, with the purpose of obtaining credits, tax exemption, getting financial advantage, or covering up prohibited activities, which has caused large-scale damage to individuals, organizations, or the State,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 200 to 500 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of two to five months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to four years, with a fine in the amount of 50 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of up to one month, or without any fine.

Article 174. The Legalisation (Laundering) of Funds and Other Property Acquired by Other Persons in an Illegal Way


1. The accomplishment of large-scale financial transactions and other deals in amounts of money or other property knowingly acquired by other persons in an illegal way (except the offences stipulated by Articles 193, 194, 198 and 199 of the present Code) for the purpose of bringing the appearance of legality to the possession, use and disposal of the said amounts of money or other property -
shall be punishable by a fine at a rate of 500-fold to 700-fold minimum wage rate or in the amount of the convict's wage or other income for a period of five to seven months or imprisonment for a term of up to four years with a fine at a rate of up to 100-fold minimum wage rate or in the amount of the convict's wage or other income for a term of up to one month or without such a fine.
2. The same actions committed:
    a) by a group of persons by preliminary agreement;
    b) repeatedly;
    c) by a person abusing his/her position -
shall be punishable by imprisonment for a term of four to eight years with the confiscation of property or without such a confiscation.
3. The actions stipulated by Part 1 or 2 of the present article committed by an organised group -
shall be punishable by imprisonment for a term of seven to ten years with the confiscation of property or without such a confiscation.
Note. The "large-scale financial transactions and other deals in amounts of money or other property" in the present article means financial transactions and other deals in amounts of money or other property accomplished in an amount exceeding 2,000-fold minimum wage rate.

Article 174.1. The Legalisation (Laundering) of Amounts of Money or Other Property Acquired by a Person as the Result of an Offence Committed by Him/Her


1. The accomplishment of large-scale financial transactions and other deals in amounts of money or other property acquired by a person as the result of his/her having committed an offence (except for the offences stipulated by Articles 193, 194, 198 and 199 of the present Code) or the use of these amounts of money or other property for the pursuance of entrepreneurial or another economic activity -
shall be punishable by a fine at a rate of 700-fold to 1,000-fold minimum wage rate or in the amount of the convict's wage or other income for a period of six to ten months or imprisonment for a term of up to five years with a fine at a rate of up to 100-fold minimum wage rate or in the amount of the convict's wage or other income for a term of up to one month or without such a fine.
2. The same actions committed:
    a) by a group of persons by preliminary agreement;
    b) repeatedly;
    c) by a person abusing his/her position -
shall be punishable by imprisonment for a term of five to eight years with the confiscation of property or without such a confiscation.
3. The actions stipulated in Part 1 or Part 2 of the present article committed by an organised group -
shall be punishable by imprisonment for a term of 10 to 15 years with the confiscation of property or without such a confiscation.
Note. The "large-scale financial transactions and other deals in amounts of money or other property" in the present article means financial transactions and other deals in amounts of money or other property accomplished in an amount exceeding 2,000-fold minimum wage rate.

Article 175. Acquisition or Sale of Property, Knowingly Obtained in a Criminal Manner


1. Acquisition or sale of property, knowingly obtained in a criminal manner,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 50 to 100 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of up to one month, or by compulsory works for a term of 180 to 240 hours, or by corrective labour for a term of one year to two years, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to two years.
2. The same acts committed:
    a) by a group of persons in a preliminary conspiracy;
    b) in relation to a car or any other property of large value;
    c) by a person who was earlier tried for stealing, extortion, or acquisition or sale of property, knowingly obtained in a criminal manner,
shall be punishable by restraint of liberty for a term of up to three years, or by arrest for a term of four to six years, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to five years, with a fine in the amount of 50 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of up to one month.
3. The acts stipulated by the first or second part of this Article, and committed by an organized group or a person using his official position,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of three to seven years, with a fine in the amount of 100 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of up to one month.

Article 76. Illegal Receipt of Credits


1. The receipt by an individual businessman or an organization manager of a credit or of favorable credit terms by means of knowingly submitting to a bank or any other creditor false information about the economic position or the financial condition of the individual businessman or organization, if this act has caused large-scale damage,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 200 to 500 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of two to five months, or arrest for a term of four to six months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of two to five years.
2. Illegal receipt of a state special-purpose credits, and also its use not for its direct designation, if these deeds have caused large-scale damage to individuals, organizations, or the State,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 500 to 700 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of five to seven months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of two to five years.

Article 177. Deliberate Evasion of the Repayment of Debts


Deliberate evasion by an organization's manager or an individual of the repayment of debts of a large size, or from the payment for securities, after the entry into legal force of an appropriate court judgement,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 200 to 500 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of two to five months, or by compulsory works for a term of 180 to 240 hours, or by arrest for a term of four to six months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to two years.
Note: An individual's indebtedness shall be deemed to be a debt of large size if its amount exceeds 500 minimum wages, and an organization's indebtedness shall be deemed to be large if its amount exceeds 2,500 minimum wages.

Article 178. Monopolistic Actions and Restricted Competition


1. Monopolistic actions taken by setting up high or low monopoly prices, and also restricting competition by means of market sharing, limiting access to a market, exclusion from it of other subjects of economic activity, or setting or maintaining fixed prices,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 200 to 500 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of two to five months, or by arrest for a term of four to six months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to two years.
2. The same acts committed repeatedly, either by a group of persons in a preliminary conspiracy or by an organized group,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 500 to 700 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of five to seven months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of two to five years.
3. Acts provided for by the first or second parts of this Article and committed with the use of violence or the threat of violence, and also with the destruction or damage of other people's property, or with the threat of its destruction or damage, in the absence of any elements of extortion,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of three to seven years, with confiscation of property or without such confiscation.

Article 179. Compulsion to Complete a Deal or to Refuse to Complete It


1. Compulsion to complete a deal or to refuse to complete it under the threat of violence, destruction, or damage of other people's property, and also under the threat of spreading information that could cause substantial harm to the rights and legally-protected interests of the victim or his relatives, in the absence of elements of extortion,
shall be punishable by restraint of liberty for a term of up to three years, or by arrest for a term of three to six months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to two years, with a fine in the amount of 50 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of up to one month, or without any fine.
2. The same act committed
    a) repeatedly;
    b) with the use of violence;
    c) by an organized group,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of five to ten years.

Article 180. Illegal Use of a Trademark


1. Illegal use of a trademark or service mark, name of the place of origin of goods, or similar designations for homogeneous goods, if this deed has been committed repeatedly or has caused substantial damage,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 200 to 400 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of two to four months, or by compulsory works for a term of 180 to 240 hours, or by corrective labour for a term of up to two years.
2. Illegal use of special marking in respect to a trademark which is not registered in the Russian Federation, or the name of the place of origin of goods, if this deed has been committed repeatedly or has inflicted sizable damage,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 100 to 200 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of one to two months, or by compulsory works for a term of 180 to 240 hours, or by corrective labour for a term of up to one year.
3. The actions specified in Parts 1 or 2 of the present article committed by a group of persons by a preliminary collusion or by an organised group shall be punishable by a fine at a rate of 400 to 800fold minimum wage rate or at the rate of the wage or other earnings of the convict for a period of four to eight months or arrest for a term of four to six months or imprisonment for a term of up to five years.

Article 181. Violation of the Rules for the Manufacture and Use of State Assay Marks


1. The non-sanctioned manufacture, sale or use, or forgery of a state assay mark, prompted by mercenary or any other personal interests,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 200 to 500 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of two to five months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to three years.
2. The same acts committed repeatedly, or by an organized group,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to five years.

Article 182. Knowingly False Advertisement


The knowing use in advertising of false information about goods, works, or services, or about their manufacturers (executors or sellers), which is prompted by mercenary interests and which has caused sizable damage,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 200 to 500 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of two to five months, or by compulsory works for a term of 180 to 240 hours, or by arrest for a term of three to six months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to two years.

Article 183. The Illegal Receipt and Disclosure of Information Classified as Commercial, Tax or Banking Secret


1. The gathering of information classified as commercial, tax or banking secret, by means of stealing documents, bribery and threats as well as in another illegal way -
shall be punishable by a fine at a rate of 100-fold to 200-fold minimum wage rate or in the amount of the convict's wage or other income for a period of one to two months or by imprisonment for a term of up to two years.
2. The illegal disclosure or use of information classified as commercial, tax or banking secret, without the consent of the owner thereof by a person to whom it is entrusted or became known in the line of service or work -
shall be punishable by a fine at a rate of 100-fold to 200-fold minimum wage rate with a deprivation of the person of his/her right to occupy certain offices or engage in certain activities for a term of up to three years or imprisonment for a term of up to three years.
3. The same actions which have inflicted a large-scale harm or which have been committed in the pursuit of a mercenary interest -
shall be punishable by fine at a rate of 200-fold to 500-fold minimum wage rate with a deprivation of the person of his/her right to occupy certain offices or engage in certain activities for a term of up to five years or imprisonment for a term of up to five years.
4. The actions specified in Parts 2 or 3 of the present article which have caused grave consequences -
shall be punishable by imprisonment for a term of up to ten years.

Article 184. Bribery of Participants and Organizers of Professional Sports and Entertainment Profit-making Competitions


1. Bribery of athletes, referees, coaches, team leaders, and other participants or organizers of professional sport competitions, and also organizers or jurymen of profit-making entertainment competitions, with the purpose of exerting influence on the results of these competitions or contests,
shall be punishable by compulsory works for a term of 120 to 180 hours, or by corrective labour for a term of six to twelve months, or by arrest for a term of up to three months.
2. The same deed committed repeatedly, or by an organized group,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to five years.
3. Illegal receipt by athletes of money, securities, or any other property transferred to them for the purpose of exerting influence on the results of said competitions, and also the illegal use by athletes of property-related services granted to them for the same purposes,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 200 to 500 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of two to five months, or by disqualification to hold specified offices or to engage in specified activities for a term up to three years, or by arrest for a term of four to six months.
4. Illegal receipt of money, securities, or any other property, illegal use of property-related services by referees, coaches, team leaders, and other participants or organizers of professional sports competitions, and also by organizers or jurymen of profit-making entertainment competitions for the purposes referred to in the third part of this Article,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to two years, with disqualification to hold specified offices or to engage in specified activities for a term of up to three years.

Article 185. Abuse in the Case of Issuance of Securities


1. The entry of deliberately unreliable information in a prospectus of securities issue, the approval of a prospectus of issue or a report on the results of a securities issue containing deliberately unreliable information, and equally, the floatation of issue securities the issue of which has not undergone state registration, if such actions have inflicted a large-scale damage to citizens, organisations or the state -
is punishable by a fine at a rate of 500 to 700-fold minimum wage rate or at the rate of the convict's wages/salary or other income for a period from five to seven months or compulsory work for 180 to 240 hours or correctional work from one year to two years.
2. The same actions committed several times or committed by a group of persons by preliminary collusion or by an organised group -
are punishable by imprisonment for a term of up to three years.
Note. The "large-scale damage" in Articles 185 and 185.1 of the present Code is deemed to be a damage exceeding 2,000-fold minimum wage rate as established by Russian law as of the time when the crime was committed.

Article 185.1. Persistent Decline to Provide Information Required under Russian Law on Securities to an Investor or a Controlling Body


A persistent decline to provide information containing details of an issuer, the issuer's financial and economic activities and securities, deals and other transactions in securities on part of the person having the duty to provide this information to an investor or a controlling body or the provision of deliberately incomplete or false information, if these actions have inflicted a large-scale damage to citizens, organisations or the state -
is punishable by a fine at a rate from 500 to 700-fold minimum wage rate or at the rate of the convict's wages/salary or other income for a term from five to seven months or compulsory work for a term from 180 to 240 hours or correctional work from one to two years.

Article 186. The Making or Uttering of Counterfeit Banknotes or Securities


1. The making of counterfeit banknotes for the purpose of their utterance, or the uttering, of counterfeit banknotes of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, metallic coins, government securities, or other securities in the currency of the Russian Federation or in foreign currency, or securities in foreign exchange,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of five to eight years, with confiscation of property or without such confiscation.
2. The same acts committed on a large scale, or by the person who was earlier tried for the making or uttering of counterfeit money or securities,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of seven to twelve years, with confiscation of property.
3. Acts provided for by the first or second part of this Article and committed by an organized group,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of eight to fifteen years, with confiscation of property.

Article 187. The Making or Uttering of Counterfeit Credit or Debit Cards, and Other Payment Documents


1. The making of counterfeit credit or debit cards, and also of other payment documents, which are not securities, with the purpose of their utterance or their uttering,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of two to six years, with a fine in the amount of 500 to 700 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or any other income of the convicted person for a period of five to seven months.
2. The same acts committed repeatedly, or by an organized group,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of five to eight years, with confiscation of property.

Article 188. Smuggling


1. Smuggling, that is, the movement of goods or any other objects across the customs border of the Russian Federation on a large scale, with the exception of these referred to in the second part of this Article, committed without the knowledge of customs control officers or with the concealment of these objects or with the deceptive use of documents or means of customs identification, or attended by non-declaration or misleading declaration,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of up five years.
2. The movement across the customs border of the Russian Federation of narcotics, psychotropic substances, potent, poisonous and radioactive substances, toxic agents, explosives, sources of radiation, nuclear materials, firearms, explosive devices, ammunition, weapons of mass destruction, means of delivery thereof, other armaments and other military hardware, as well as of materials and equipment, which can be used in the development of weapons of mass destruction and means of delivery thereof, of other armaments and other military hardware, in respect of which special rules for the movement across the customs border of the Russian Federation have been introduced, or strategic raw materials, or cultural valuables, in respect of which special rules for the movement across the customs border of the Russian Federation have been established, if this deed has been committed without the knowledge of customs control officers or with the concealment of these objects, or with deceptive use of documents or means of customs identification, or attended by non-declaration or misleading declaration,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of three to seven years, with confiscation of property or without such confiscation.
3. Deeds stipulated by the first or second part of the present Article, and committed:
    a) repeatedly;
    b) by an office-bearer through his official position;
    c) with the use of violence against a person exercising customs control,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of five to ten years, with confiscation of property or without such confiscation.
4. Deeds envisaged by the first, second, or third parts of this Article, and committed by an organized group,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of seven to twelve years, with confiscation of property.
Note: The deed stipulated by the first part of this Article shall be deemed to be committed on a large scale, if the value of the goods moved exceeds 500 minimum wages.

Article 189. Illegal Export or Transfer of Raw Stuff, Materials, Equipment, Technology, or of Scientific and Technical Information, or Illegal Carrying Out Works (Rendering Services) Which May Be Used in the Development of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Armaments, and Military Hardware


1. Illegal export or transfer by a person, empowered to exercise foreign economic activity, to a foreign organization or to its representative raw stuff, materials, equipment, technology, scientific and technical information, or illegal carrying out works (rendering services) by this person for a foreign organization or for its representative, or illegal rendering to a foreign organization or its representative services, which are known to said person as those that can be used in the development of armaments and military hardware and in respect of which export control has been established (in the absence of indicia of the crimes provided for by Articles 188 and 275 of the Code), -
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of from 700 to 1,000 minimum amounts of labour wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of from seven to twelve months, or by revocation of the right to hold certain posts, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to three years.
2. The same deeds committed more than once or by a group of persons according a prearranged plan, -
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of from two to five years accompanied by revocation of the right to hold certain posts or to exercise certain types of activity for a term of up to three years.
3. The deeds provided for by Part One of this Article, which have been committed by an organized group of persons in respect of raw stuff, materials, equipment, technology, scientific and technical information, and works (services) which are known to the person, empowered to exercise foreign economic activity, as those that can be used in the development of weapons of mass destruction or means of delivery thereof and in respect of which export control has been established, -
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of from three to seven years accompanied by confiscation of property or without such.
Note. A person, empowered to exercise foreign economic activity, shall mean in this Article the head of a legal entity established in compliance with the laws of the Russian Federation and having the permanent location on the territory of the Russian Federation, as well as a natural person having the permanent residence on the territory of the Russian Federation and registered on the territory of the Russian Federation as an individual businessman.

Article 190. Non-Return to the Territory of the Russian Federation of Items of the Artistic, Historical, and Archaeological Heritage of the Peoples of the Russian Federation or of Foreign Countries


Non-return to the territory of the Russian Federation within the fixed time of items of the artistic, historical, or archaeological heritage of the Peoples of the Russian Federation and foreign countries, brought out beyond its confines, if such return is mandatory in keeping with the laws of the Russian Federation,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to eight years, with confiscation of property or without such confiscation.

Article 191. Illegal Sale of Precious Metals, Natural Precious Stones, or Pearls


1. The dealing in precious metals, natural precious stones, or pearls in contravention of the rules established by the laws of the Russian Federation, and also the illegal storage, conveyance, or transport of precious metals, natural precious stones, or pearls in any state, with the exception of jewelry or domestic goods and scrap articles,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 200 to 500 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of two to five months, or by corrective labour for term of up to two years, or by restraint of liberty for a term of up to three years, or by arrest for a term of up to six months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to three years.
2. The same acts committed:
    a) by a person who was earlier tried for the illegal sale of precious metals, natural precious stones, or pearls;
    b) on a large scale;
    c) by an organized group,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of five to ten years, with confiscation of property or without such confiscation.
Note: Deeds stipulated by this Article shall be deemed to be committed on a large scale, if the value of the precious metals, natural precious stones, or pearls, which have been illegally traded, exceeds 500 minimum wages.

Article 192. Violation of the Rules for Handing over Precious Metals and Precious Stones to the State


Evasion of the obligatory delivery of precious metals and precious stones for assesment or compulsory sale to the State after they have been extracted from the earth or from recycled resources, or picked up or found, if this act has been committed on a large scale,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 200 to 500 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of two to five months, or by arrest for a term of three to six months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to three years.
Note: Infringement of the rules for handing over or selling precious metals and precious stones to the State shall be deemed to be committed on a large scale if the value of the objects mentioned in this Article, not handed over or sold to the State, exceeds 500 minimum wages.

Article 193. Non-return of Funds in Foreign Currency from Abroad


Non-return from abroad of funds in foreign currency by the manager of an organization, required to be transferred without fail to accounts in the authorized banks of the Russian Federation in accordance with its laws,
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to three years.
Note: The act envisaged by this Article shall be deemed to be committed on a large scale if the sum of the non-returned funds in foreign currency exceeds 10,000 minimum wages.

Article 194. Evasion of Customs Payments Collected from Organizations or Natural Person


1. The evasion of customs payments collected from organizations or natural person committed on a large scale
shall be punishable with a fine ranging from two hundred to seven hundred the minimal wage or totalling a wage or any other income of a convict over a period from two up to seven months or with compulsory labour for a period from one hundred eighty up to two hundred forty hours or up to two years of imprisonment.
2. The same deed committed:
    a) by a group of persons by prior conspiracy;
    b) a person previously convicted for the commission of crimes provided under this article as well as under Articles 198 or 199 hereof;
    c) several times;
    d) on especially large scale -
shall be punishable with a fine ranging from five hundred to one thousand the minimal wage or totalling a wage or any other income of a convict over a period from five months up to one year or up to five years of imprisonment with the deprivation of right to hold certain posts or engage in certain activities for a term up to three years or without such deprivation.
Note: The evasion of customs payments shall be regarded as committed on a large scale if the amount of non-paid customs payments exceeds one thousand the minimal wage and on especially large scale - three thousand the minimal wage.

Article 195. Lawless Actions in Case of Bankruptcy


1. Concealment of property or of property liabilities, of information about property, its size, and place of location, or of other information about property, transfer of property into another's possession, alienation or destruction of property, and also concealment, destruction, or falsification of accounting and other records reflecting economic activity, if these actions have been committed by the manager or the owner of a debtor organization or by an individual businessman in case of bankruptcy or in expectation of bankruptcy, and have caused sizable damage,
shall be punishable by restraint of liberty for a term of up to three years, or by arrest for a term of four to six months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to two years, with a fine in the amount of 200 to 500 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of two to five months.
2. Unlawful satisfaction of the property claims of particular creditors by the manager of a debtor organization or by an individual businessman who knows about his actual insolvency (bankruptcy), knowingly done to the detriment of other creditors, and also the acceptance of such satisfaction by a creditor who knows about the preference given to him in the insolvency to the detriment of other creditors, if these actions have caused large-scale damage,
shall be punishable by restraint of liberty for a term of up to two years, or by arrest for a term of two to four months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to one year, with a fine in the amount of 100 to 200 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of one to two months, or without any fine.

Article 196. Deliberate Bankruptcy


Deliberate bankruptcy, that is, the intentional creation or increase of insolvency, committed by the manager or the owner of a profit-making organization, or by an individual businessman, for the doer's benefit or for the benefit of other persons, which has caused large-scale damage or any other grave consequences,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 500 to 800 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of up to six years, with a fine in the amount of up to 100 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of up to one month, or without any fine.

Article 197. Fictitious Bankruptcy


Fictitious bankruptcy, that is the knowingly false declaration by the manager or owner of a profit-making organization, or by an individual businessman, about the doer's, insolvency with the aim of deluding creditors and receiving delays or time to make pay payments due to creditors, or a debt allowance, and likewise for defaults on debts, if this deed has caused large-scale damage,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 500 to 800 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of five to eight months, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to six years, with a fine in the amount of up to 100 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of up to one month, or without any fine.

Article 198. Evasion by Natural Person of Tax or Insurance Premium to Be Paid to the State Extrabudgetary Funds


1. The evasion of a natural person of tax by failure to submit an income declaration in cases when the submission of a declaration is obligatory or by showing in a declaration data on incomes and expenses known to be false or by any other means and also of an insurance premium to the state extrabudgetary funds committed on a large scale -
shall be punishable with a fine ranging from two hundred up to seven hundred the minimal wage or totalling a wage or other income of a convict for a period from five up to seven months or an arrest for a period from four up to six months or up to two years of imprisonment.
2. The same deed committed on especially large scale or by a person previously convicted for the commission of offences provided under this article as well as articles 194 or 199 hereof -
shall be punishable with a fine ranging from five hundred up to one thousand the minimal wage or totalling a wage or other income of a convict for a period from seven months up to one year or up to five years of imprisonment.
Note. 1. The evasion by a natural person of a tax or an insurance premium to be paid to the state extrabudgetary funds shall be regarded as committed on a large scale, if the amount of non-paid tax and/or insurance premium to the state extrabudgetary funds exceeds two hundred the minimal wage and on especially large scale - five hundred the minimal wage.
2. A person who for the first time committed the offences provided under this article and also articles 194 or 199 hereof, shall be freed from criminal liability provided it has assisted in disclosing an offence and has fully compensated the damage caused.

Article 199. Evasion of Taxes or Insurance Premiums to Be Paid to the State Extrabudgetary Funds by Organizations


1. The evasion of taxes on organizations by showing in accounting documents data on incomes and expenses known to be false or by any other means and also of insurance premiums to be paid to the state extrabudgetary funds by organizations committed on a large scale -
shall be punishable with the deprivation of right to hold certain posts or engage in certain activities for a period up to five years or with an arrest for a period from four up to six months or with up to four years of imprisonment.
2. The same deed committed:
    a) by a group of persons by prior conspiracy;
    b) a person previously convicted for the commission of crimes vided under this article as well as under Articles 194 or 198 hereof;
    c) several times;
    d) on especially large scale -
shall be punishable with imprisonment for a period ranging from two up to seven years with the deprivation of right to hold certain posts or engage in certain activities for a period up to three years.
Note. The evasion of taxes or insurance premiums to the state extrabudgetary funds by organization shall be regarded as committed on a large scale if the amount of the non-paid taxes and/or insurance premiums to the state extrabudgetary funds exceeds one thousand the minimal wage and on especially large scale - five thousand the minimal wage.

Article 200. Deception of Customers


1. False measurement, false weighting, cheating, and tricking customers regarding properties or the quality of goods (services), or any other deception of customers by organizations which sell goods or render services to people, and equally by private persons registered as individual businessmen in the sphere of trade (services), if these deeds have been committed on a large scale,
shall be punishable by a fine in the amount of 100 to 200 minimum wages, or in the amount of the wage or salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of one to two months, or by compulsory works for a term of 180 to 240 hours, or by corrective labour for a term of one to two years.
2. The same deeds committed:
    a) by a person earlier convicted of deceiving customers;
    b) by a group of persons in a preliminary conspiracy or by an organized group;
    c) on a large scale
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to two years, with disqualification to hold specified offices or engage in specified activities for a term of up to three years.
Note: Deception that causes damage to customers in an amount exceeding ten percent of one minimum wage is deemed to be deception of customers on a sizable scale; while deception that causes damage to customers in the amount of not less than one minimum wage is deemed to be deception on a large scale.

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